Research data can take many forms across the fields of research covered by journals and books published by Springer Nature. Research data include any recorded factual materials that are used to produce the results in digital and non-digital form. This includes tabular data, code, images, audio, documents, video, maps, raw and/or processed data.
Research data refers to data produced by the authors (“primary data”) and data from other sources that are analysed by authors in their study (“secondary data”). However, you should not re-share secondary data. Instead, you should reference it as you would a literature reference.
The data sharing policies of our journals in general concern the minimal dataset that supports the central findings of a published study. For more information, please contact us.